A Dual-Hormone Multicontroller for Artificial Pancreas Systems

TitleA Dual-Hormone Multicontroller for Artificial Pancreas Systems
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsFushimi E, De Battista H, Garelli F
JournalIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics

Artificial pancreas (AP) algorithms can be divided into single-hormone (SH) and dual-hormone (DH). SH algorithms regulate glycemia using insulin as their control input. On the other hand, DH algorithms also use glucagon to counteract insulin. While SH-AP systems are already commercially available, DH-AP systems are still in an earlier research phase. DH-AP systems have been questioned since the added complexity of glucagon infusion does not always guarantee hypoglycemia prevention and might significantly raise insulin delivery. In this work, a DH multicontroller is proposed based on a SH linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) algorithm with an additional LQG controller to deliver glucagon. This strategy has a switched structure that allows activating one of the following three controllers when necessary: a conservative insulin LQG controller to modulate basal delivery ($K_{1}$), an aggressive insulin LQG controller to counteract meals ($K_{2}$), or a glucagon LQG controller to avoid imminent hypoglycemia ($K_{3}$). Here, an in silico study of the benefits of incorporating controller $K_{3}$ is carried out. Intra-patient variability and mixed meals are considered. Results indicate that the proposed switched, dual-hormone strategy yields to a reduction in hypoglycemia without increasing hyperglycemia, with no significant rise in insulin delivery.

Research Line: 
Control de sistemas y procesos biológicos
Control of biological processes and systems
Artificial pancreas
Páncreas artificial